The Incoterms 2010
The Incoterms 2010
Incoterms 2010 describe the responsibilities of seller and buyer in international trade.
The full and authoritative definition of each trade term is published in Incoterms 2010, Publication 715, obtainable from the ICC.
This is a summary for reference purposes only, not official.
EXW - EX WORKS
FCA - FREE CARRIER
FAS - FREE ALONGSIDE SHIP
FOB - FREE ON BOARD
CFR - COST AND FREIGHT
CIF - COST, INSURANCE AND FREIGHT
CPT - CARRIAGE PAID TO
CIP - CARRIAGE AND INSURANCE PAID TO
DAT - DELIVERED AT TERMINAL
DAP - DELIVERED AT PLACE
DDP - DELIVERED DUTY PAID
The Incoterms 2010
EX WORKS (... named place) "Ex works" means the seller's only responsibility is to make the goods available at the seller's premises, i.e., the works or factory. The seller is not responsible for loading the goods on the vehicle provided by
the buyer unless otherwise agreed. The buyer bears the full costs and risk involved in bringing the goods from there to the desired destination. Ex works represents the minimum
obligation of the seller.
FREE CARRIER (... named place) This term has been designed to meet the requirements of multimodal transport, such as container or roll-on, roll-off traffic by trailers and ferries. It is based on the same name principle as F.O.B. (free on board), except the seller fulfills its obligations when the goods are delivered to the custody of the carrier at the named place. If no precise place can be named at the time of the contract of sale, the parties should refer to the place where the carrier should take the goods into its charge. The risk of loss or damage to the goods is transferred from
seller to buyer at that time and not at the ship's rail. The term "carrier" means any person by whom or in whose name a contract of carriage by road, rail, air, sea, or a combination of modes has been made. When a seller has been furnished a bill of lading, way bill or carrier's receipt, the seller duly fulfills its obligation by
presenting such a document issued by a carrier.
FREE ALONGSIDE SHIP (... named port of shipment) "F.A.S." or "free alongside ship" requires the seller to deliver the goods alongside the ship on the quay. From that point on, the buyer bears all costs and risks of loss and damage to the goods. Unlike F.O.B., F.A.S. requires the buyer to clear the goods for export and pay the cost of loading the goods.
FREE ON BOARD (... named port of shipment) Under "F.O.B." or "free on board," the goods are placed on board the ship by the seller at a port of shipment named in the sales agreement. The risk of loss of or damage to the goods is transferred to the buyer when the goods pass the ship's rail (i.e., off the dock and placed on the ship). The seller pays the cost of loading the goods.
COST AND FREIGHT (... named port of destination) "CFR"requires the seller to pay the costs and freight necessary to bring the goods to the named destination, but the risk of loss or damage to the goods, as well as any cost increases, are transferred from the seller to the buyer when the goods pass the ship's rail in the port of shipment. Insurance is the buyer's responsibility.
COST, INSURANCE AND FREIGHT (... named port of destination) "CIF" is CFR. with the additional requirement that the seller procure transport insurance against the risk of loss or damage to goods. The seller
must contract with the insurer and pay the insurance premium. Insurance is generally more important in international shipping than domestic shipping, because U.S. laws generally hold a common carrier to be liable for lost or damaged goods.
CARRIAGE PAID TO (... named place of destination) This term means the seller pays the freight for the carriage of the goods to the named destination. The risk of loss or damage to the goods and any cost increases transfers from the seller to the buyer when the goods have been delivered to the custody of the first carrier, and not at the ship's rail. Accordingly, "freight/carriage paid to" can be used for all modes of transportation, including container or roll-on roll-off traffic by trailers and ferries. When the seller is required to furnish a bill of lading, way bill, or carrier receipt, the
seller duly fulfills its obligation by presenting such a document issued by the person contracted with for carriage to the main destination.
CARRIAGE AND INSURANCE PAID TO (... named place of destination) This term is the same as "freight/carriage paid to (CPT)" but with the additional requirement that the seller has to procure transport insurance against the risk of loss or damage to the goods during the carriage. The seller contracts with the insurer and pays the
DELIVERED AT TERMINAL (... named place) "Delivered at Terminal"
Seller pays for carriage to the terminal, except for costs related to import clearance, and assumes all risks up to the point that the goods are unloaded at the terminal.
DELIVERED AT PLACE (... named place of destination)
Seller pays for carriage to the named place, except for costs related to import clearance, and assumes all risks prior to the point that the goods are ready for unloading by the buyer.
DDP - DELIVERED DUTY PAID (... named place of destination) represents the seller's maximum obligation. The term "DDP." is generally followed by words indicating the buyer's premises. It notes that the seller
bears all risks and all costs until the goods are delivered. This term can be used irrespective of the mode of transport. If the parties wish to make clear that the seller is not responsible for certain costs, additional word should be added (for example, "delivered duty paid exclusive of VAT and/or taxes").
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